Field Trip

3 days field trip (3-5 November) is scheduled to the Biga Peninsula Region, western Anatolia, to visit several ancient mines (Balya lead deposit, Kartaldağ gold deposit etc.). Geoarchaeologically important cultural sites in the region, Troy, Pergamon, and Assos will also be visited during the field workshop.  Field trip for 3 days is 200  €  including transportation, museums and overnight stays – hotels


Northwestern Anatolia includes a variety of gold, copper, and lead-zinc occurrences that were mined in ancient time and played a major role in founding of cities and settlements       in the region.  This terrain is known for mining, smelting, and use of the metal objects by early man (Please see Akurgal, 1969).  Perhaps the most  well-known and popular settlement of the region is Troy which was founded at the edge of the Dardanelles Strait in the northeast Aegean during the Early bronz  age approx. 5500 years before present.  This ancient settlement was also an important harbor and  rest site for the mariners before entering the Black Sea especially during frequent storms and high winds.  The fame     and wealth of ancient Troy was directly related to nearby precious metal deposits such as alluvial and vein –type gold  and base metals  such as skarn type  Cu, and Pb-Zn.         Today, the region is still being mined for its  epithermal gold deposits as well as skarn-type lead–zinc-copper deposits.

Historical and ancient mining structures such as adits, galleries and slag piles that resulted from smelting are seen in the region and serve to emphasize the importance of mining and metallurgy in ancient Turkey.  Early investigators (Pernicha et al., 2003; Wagner and Öztunalı, 2000) argued that the during the early Bronze age, gold, silver,  copper, and     lead ores were derived from the regional mineral occurrences; however, tin for production of bronze tools and weapons was brought here from an eastern  source. Trace element and Pb isotope study of the ores, slags and artifacts showed that during the Troy I period (5500 years  age) regional ores were used (Pernicha et al., 2003)  while the Pb isotope signature copper- based objects  from the  Troy II, (4300 years age)  is significantly different from the Anatolian ores. This finding documents the onset of regional trade during that time.  These researchers also defined   lead bearing  artifacts as having been sourced from Precambrian rocks—this indicates the  introduction of exogenic raw materials into the region, especially tin, from Central Asia as Precambrian rocks are absent in Anatolia.

Öztunalı Field Workshop, 3-5 November 2017

3 November 2017

Departure from İstanbul at 24:00 and arrival at Balya Chalcolithic Cu-Pb mine at 07:00, breakfast at the mine and site visit to Chalcolithic-age                                           (approx.6000 years before present) adits used for Cu mining and huge slag piles.

12:00 Dinner, 13:00 Departure to Pergamon

15:00 Arrival at Pergamon and visit to the ancient city, overnight at Pergamon.

4 November 2017

Breakfast at 07:00 and 08:00 departure to the Altınoluk lead -zinc-silver deposit and ancient city of Antandros.

9:30 arrival to the mine and investigations of ancient galleries and ores. 12:00 depart to Assos, arrival ~13:00.  Visit to ancient city of Assos, see evidence for landslides and           active faulting at historical site.

14:30 Depart to ancient column quarry at Kestanbol, Arrival at 15:30 and  departure 16:30, overnight at Ezine.

5 November 2017

8:00 Departure to Troia, arrival at 09:00 and guided tour of the ancient city.

10:00 Departure to ancient gold mines in quartz vein at Kartaldağ and Madendağ.

11:00 arrival to the mines, site visit 1-1.5 hours.

12:30 Departure to the ancient Cu mines at Yuvalar and Doğancılar.

13:30 arrival to Cu mines and discussion of ores, slags, and adits.

18:00 Depart to İstanbul, 23:00 arrival to İstanbul.


Balya Pb- Zn- Cu Mine

This is a skarn-type polymetallic mineral deposit with huge reserve that occurs between the Permian limestone and Oligocene andesitic porphyry stocks.                                          The ancient mining is dated as Chalcolitic (Pernicka et. al., 2003) and an adits is located at the  highest point of the deposit. A huge slag pile at the entrance to the deposit             has been recently used for road stabilizer and more than half of it has been consumed. Approximately 5,000 tons of ore is mined daily by underground methods and  Pb-Zn-Cu   concentrate is produced.

Ancient City of Pergamon

This ancient settlement (Bergama in Turkish) is surrounded by very famous epithermal gold deposits such as Bergama and Çukuralan which are active today.                                This ancient city was founded on top of a hill and includes a number of historical monuments that have been affected by earthquakes.  A big amphitheater has been partly       affected by slope failure and seismicity.  A cable car system is used to reach the ancient settlement.

Altınoluk Pb-Ag Mine

This mine occurs on the southern slope the Kazdağ (Ida) Mountain, 2 km NW of the Altınoluk Village.  The ore consists of silver-bearing galena, sphalerite, pyrite,chalcopyrite,     and bornite. Although modern workings have disturbed the ancient site, adits, tool marks, and thick sinter crusts on the walls can still be seen. Silver, copper and lead have been produced from this deposit.


Assos is a magnificent ancient city that includes large Roman amphitheater, which was mostly destroyed by landslide and active tectonics.  The fault bounded city wall shows           the effects of the reactivation of the normal faults.  Some slag occurs in the ancient city and indicates some local smelting activity during the Roman time.

For further information please visit

Kestanbol Ancient Granite Column Quarry

This quarry shows the in situ column making processes used during Roman time.  This quarry was investigated by Satır and Zöldföldi (2003).


Troia or Troy is an important and famous city in terms of its archaeometallurgy and importance to humanity.  The city is located at the edge of the Küçük Menderes river that flows into the Aegean Sea.  This old city was initially excavated by Heinrich Schliemann in 1868 who exported the Troy  treasures that consisting of mostly  gold  to Germany,  which      were then transferred to Moscow during the occupation of Berlin by the Russian army at the last stage of World War II. The most interesting artifacts include a bronze cup as              well as copper and gold artifacts from the early Bronze Age level.

For further information please visit

Kartaldağ and Madendağ Au Mines

Mining operations at these two deposits date back to the Trojans.  Both deposits were subsequently operated by a British company, called Astyra Gold Mining, during    1914-      1918 and quartz veins includes up to 17 ppm gold (İmer et al., 2013).  Kartaldağ (Serçeler) is accepted as a high sulphidation type system whereas Madendağ is  example of      adularia-sericite type epithermal deposit (Watanabe et al., 2003).

The Kartaldağ deposit occurs in sub volcanic stocks of Eocene dacite. The mineralization shows close association of argillic (clay) alteration, quartz and alunite and the ore mineralogy consists of gold, pyrite, sphalerite, and covellite.  Pernicka et al 2003 gave a 790-400  B.C.  14C age on charcoal in the deposit.  An ancient gallery is intersected           by modern mining.

The Madendağ deposit includes up to 20 ppm Au and occurs in Paleozoic mica schists. The ore is associated with quartz, pyrite, kaolinite, and illite.

It is commonly believed that Priam’s gold and silver excavated by Schlieman possibly originated from these deposits. For further information please visit

Yuvalar Cu

This ancient mine site includes numerous mining and smelting remains and is situated at ~220-230 m elevation and is 3 km NE of Yuvalar Village.  The ore consists of pyrite, chalcopyrite, hematite, limonite, and malachite and is found in a contact zone between granodiorite and mica schist.  Open diggings and narrow adits are visible.  A slag site indicates that copper was smelted from malachite.  According to Pernicka et al.(2003), ceramic fragments commonly found in the slag indicates Roman or early Medieval  mining.

Doğancılar Cu

This deposit is 7 km north of Doğancılar village and copper  mineralization occurs in silicified veins within dacites.  The ore consits of chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, pyrite,         and secondary hematite, limonite, and malachite.  There are several piles of slag that indicates copper smelting.


Akurgal, E., 1969, Ancient civilisations and ruins of Turkey: Mobil Oil Türk A.Ş., İstanbul.

İmer, E. Ü., Güleç, N., Kuşcu, İ.,  Fallick, A.E., 2013. Genetic investigation and comparison of Kartaldağ and Madendağ epithermal gold deposits in Çanakkale, NW Turkey.              Ore Geology Reviews 53 p.204–222.

Pernicka,E.,  Eibner, C., Öztunalı, Ö., Wagner, G. A.,2003. Early Bronze Age Metallurgy in the North-East Aegean’’. In Troia and the Troad: Scientific Approaches, edited by G. A. Wagner, E. Pernicka,  H.P. Uerpmann, Berlin: Springer, pp. 143-172.

Satır and Zöldföldi, 2003. Provenance Studies of Pottery and Granite Columns in Troia. In Troia and the Troad: Scientific Approaches, edited by G. A. Wagner, E. Pernicka,  H.P. Uerpmann, Berlin: Springer, pp: 223-231.

Wagner, G. A. and Öztunalı, Ö., 2000. Prehistoric Copper Sources in Turkey. Anatolian Metal I, Bergbau Museum, Bochum, p:31-67.

Watanabe, Y., Murakami, H., Cengiz, İ., Sari, R., Küçükefe, S., Yıldırım, S., 2003. Study on Hydrothermal Deposits and Metallogeny in Western Turkey. Progress Report No.1 (interim report). (60 pp.).